H. W. GOULD.Powers of the Catalan Generating Function and Lagrange's 1770 Trinomial Equation Series[J].数学研究及应用,2019,39(6):603~606
Powers of the Catalan Generating Function and Lagrange's 1770 Trinomial Equation Series
Powers of the Catalan Generating Function and Lagrange's 1770 Trinomial Equation Series
投稿时间:2019-07-15  修订日期:2019-10-10
DOI:10.3770/j.issn:2095-2651.2019.06.007
中文关键词:  Catalan numbers  Vandermonde convolution  Lagrange and B\"{u}rmann series  Rothe's formula (or general identity of Rothe-Hagen)
英文关键词:Catalan numbers  Vandermonde convolution  Lagrange and B\"{u}rmann series  Rothe's formula (or general identity of Rothe-Hagen)
基金项目:
作者单位
H. W. GOULD Department of Mathematics, West Virginia University, PO Box 6310 Morgantown, WV 26506-6310, U. S. A 
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中文摘要:
      The Catalan numbers $1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, 132, 429, 1430, 4862,\ldots$ are given by $C(n)=\frac{1}{n+1}\binom{2n}{n}$ for $n\geq 0$. They are named for Eugene Catalan who studied them as early as 1838. They were also found by Leonhard Euler (1758), Nicholas von Fuss (1795), and Andreas von Segner (1758). The Catalan numbers have the binomial generating function $$\mathbf{C}(z) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}C(n)z^n = \frac{1 - \sqrt{1-4z}}{2z}$$ It is known that powers of the generating function $\mathbf{C}(z)$ are given by $$\mathbf{C}^a(z) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{a}{a+2n}\binom{a+2n}{n}z^n.$$ The above formula is not as widely known as it should be. We observe that it is an immediate, simple consequence of expansions first studied by J. L. Lagrange. Such series were used later by Heinrich August Rothe in 1793 to find remarkable generalizations of the Vandermonde convolution. For the equation $x^3 - 3x + 1 =0$, the numbers $\frac{1}{2k+1}\binom{3k}{k}$ analogous to Catalan numbers occur of course. Here we discuss the history of these expansions. and formulas due to L. C. Hsu and the author.
英文摘要:
      The Catalan numbers $1, 1, 2, 5, 14, 42, 132, 429, 1430, 4862,\ldots$ are given by $C(n)=\frac{1}{n+1}\binom{2n}{n}$ for $n\geq 0$. They are named for Eugene Catalan who studied them as early as 1838. They were also found by Leonhard Euler (1758), Nicholas von Fuss (1795), and Andreas von Segner (1758). The Catalan numbers have the binomial generating function $$\mathbf{C}(z) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}C(n)z^n = \frac{1 - \sqrt{1-4z}}{2z}$$ It is known that powers of the generating function $\mathbf{C}(z)$ are given by $$\mathbf{C}^a(z) = \sum_{n=0}^{\infty}\frac{a}{a+2n}\binom{a+2n}{n}z^n.$$ The above formula is not as widely known as it should be. We observe that it is an immediate, simple consequence of expansions first studied by J. L. Lagrange. Such series were used later by Heinrich August Rothe in 1793 to find remarkable generalizations of the Vandermonde convolution. For the equation $x^3 - 3x + 1 =0$, the numbers $\frac{1}{2k+1}\binom{3k}{k}$ analogous to Catalan numbers occur of course. Here we discuss the history of these expansions. and formulas due to L. C. Hsu and the author.
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